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FREELANG - Classification of languages by families

 

The linguists usually count around 7,000 languages, and several thousands dialects can also be added. The table below (which shows about 800 main languages) is only a glimpse of the huge diversity of languages.

To find a language in the table, you can use the Edit, Search function of your browser. Extinct languages are usually not cited.

Please note that the number of speakers is for information only, as it is very hard to know the exact number of speakers of a language. If you have more accurate information, please contact us.

 

 Families and languages (below, comprehensive table)

 Families only (summary table)

 Language maps

 


For a comprehensive classification of all existing languages, we recommend the website of the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Texas. It is the biggest database available on the web concerning languages and their classification.

Our other sources:
- Centre international de recherche en aménagement linguistique (Laval University, Quebec)
- Bibliothèque publique d'information (French Ministry of Culture)
- Krysstal (personal website)


Indoeuropean tree

Summary of this page


 

FAMILIES:
Indo-European | Basque | Dravidian
Uralic | Caucasian | Altaic

Japanese | Ainu | Korean
Sino-Tibetan (Sino-Thai) | Austro-Asiatic

Afro-Asiatic (Chamito-Semitic) | Nilo-Saharan
Nigero-Kordofanian (Niger-Congo, Bantu)
Khoisan

Austronesian | Papuan | Australian

Creoles and Pidgins | Amerindian
Na-Dene | Eskimo-Aleut | Paleo-Siberian

 

Classification of languages by families

  Indo-European family (1.6 billion speakers)

Indo-Iranian group (600 million speakers)

Indic / Indo-Aryan branch (540 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Sanskrit14,000India
Bengali180 millionBangladesh
Hindi400 millionIndia
Marathi64 millionIndia
Gujarati40 millionIndia
Bihari40 millionIndia (nord-est)
Oriya31 millionIndia
Pendjabi80 millionIndia, Pakistan (Pendjab)
Radjasthani20 millionIndia
Assamese14.6 millionIndia
Bundeli8 millionIndia
Pahari6 millionIndia
Konkani2 millionIndia
Nepali12 millionNépal, India
Urdu150 millionIndia, Pakistan
Sindhi19.6 millionPakistan
Sinhala12 millionSri Lanka
Tsigane (Romani)10 millionEurope

Iranian branch (60 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Avesticextinct language
Persian (Farsi)26.5 millionIran
Persian (Dari)7 millionAfghanistan, Pakistan
Afghan (Pashtu)20 millionPakistan, Afghanistan
Balutchi1.6 millionPakistan
Tajik4.3 millionTadjikistan
Ossetic600 000Russia, Georgia
Kurdish25 millionTurkey, Iran, Irak, Syrie
Other languages: Talysh, Tat (Azerbaidjan)

Greek group (15 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Ancient Greekextinct language
Modern Greek15 millionGreece

Italic (Latin) group (430 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Latinextinct language

Portuguese

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Portuguese182 millionPortugal, Brazil
Galician4 millionSpain (Galice)
Mirandese10 000Portugal

Spanish

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Spanish (Castillan)392 millionSpain, South America
Asturian100 000Spain
Other languages: Leonese, Andalou, Aragonese (11 000), Extremaduran, Judeo-Spanish (Israel)

Catalan

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Catalan10 millionSpain, France

Occitan

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Occitan2 millionFrance, Italy
Northern-Occitan: Limousin, Auvergnat, Provençal alpin
Southern-Occitan: Languedocian, Provençal, Gascon, Niçois

French / Oil languages

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
French110 millionFrance + TOM, Switzerland, Belgium, Quebec, French-speaking Africa...
Wallon Belgium, France
Oïl languages: Picard, Haut normand, Champenois, Lorrain, South-East (Bouguignon, Bourbonnais, Franc-comtois), Central (Francien, Orléanais, Berrichon), North-Western (Gallo, Anglo-Normand, Bas Normand, Mayennais, Manceau, Angevin, Tourangeau), South-Western (Poitevin, Saintongeais)
North America: Québécois, Acadien

Italian

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Italian64 millionItaly
Sicilian4.6 millionSicilia
Corse150 000Corse
Other languages: Piemontese, Lombard, Ligurian, Emilian, Bolognese, Venitian, Istrian, Toscan, Calabrese, Lucanian, Abruzzian, Marches, Pouilles

Sardinian

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Sardinian1.5 millionSardinia
Other languages: Campidanian, Logoudorian, Gallurian

Rheto-Roman

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Romanche50 000Switzerland (Grisons)
Ladin10 000Italy (North)
Frioulan450 000Italy (Frioul)

Romanian

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Romanian20 millionRomania
Other languages: Macedo-Romanian (Balkans), Migleno-Romanian (Greece), Istrio-Romanian (Croatia)

Celtic group (2 million speakers)

Brittonic branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Breton250 000France (Bretagne)
Welsh800 000Wales

Gaelic branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Irish1 millionIreland
Scottish70 000Scotland
Manx600Man Island

Germanic group (480 million speakers)

Western branch

Anglo-Frisian

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
English470 millionUK, USA, Canada, Australia...
Frisian450 000Netherlands, Germany

Germano-Dutch

Low Saxon / Niederdeutsch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Dutch21 millionNetherlands
Flemish6 millionBelgium
Afrikaans10 millionSouth Africa, Namibia
Other languages: Northern German, Low-Saxon
High German / Hochdeutsch (121 million speakers)
Middle German

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Moselle Franconian Nied area
Rhenisch Franconian coal basin until Alsace
Luxembourgeois410 000Luxembourg, Thionville area
Other languages: Ripuarian Franconian, Upper Saxon
Upper German

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
German90 millionGermany
Other languages: Eastern Franconian, Southern Franconian, Bavarian, Alemannic (Alsacian, Swabian, Schwyzerdütsch), Yiddish (Ashkenazi) and Pensilfaanisch (Amish in USA)

Northern / Scandinavian branch

Western sub-group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Icelandic250 000Iceland
Norwegian (bokmål ou riksmål)5 millionNorway
Norwegian (landsmål ou nynorsk)726 000Norway
Faroese50 000Faroe Islands

Eastern sub-group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Danish5 millionDenmark
Swedish9 millionSweden

Baltic group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Latvian2.5 millionLatvia
Lithuanian5 millionLithuania

Slavic group (250 million speakers)

Western branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Polish44 millionPoland
Czech12 millionCzech Republic
Slovak5 millionSlovakia
Sorbian (Lusatian, Wendish)500 000Lusace (Germany, Poland)

Southern branch

Western sub-group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Serbian11 millionSerbia
Croatian6 millionCroatia
Bosnian2.5 millionBosnia
Slovenian2.5 millionSlovenia

Eastern sub-group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Bulgarian9 millionBulgaria
Macedonian4 millionMacedonia

Eastern branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Russian288 millionRussia
Ukrainian41 millionUkraine
Belarusan12 millionBelarus

Armenian group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Armenian5 millionArmenia, Turkey

Albanian group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Albanian5 millionAlbania, Kosovo
2 main dialects: Tosh (South of Albania) and Gheg (North)

 

  Basque family

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Basque800 000Basque Country (Spain, France)

 

  Dravidian family (150 million speakers)

Northern group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Brahui1.5 millionPakistan
Other languages: Malto, Kurux (Nepal), Sauria

Central group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Telugu57 millionIndia (Andhra Pradesh)
Gondi1 millionIndia
Other languages: Konda, Kui, Manda, Parji, Gadaba, Kolami, Pengo, Naiki, Kuvi

Southern group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Tamil70 millionIndia (Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka
Malayalam34.6 millionIndia
Kannada33 millionIndia
Tulu1 millionIndia
Other languages: Kodagu, Toda, Kota

 

  Uralic family (25 million speakers)

Finno-Ugric group

Finnic branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Finnish6 millionFinland
Estonian1.5 millionEstonia
Karelian Karelia (Russia)
Sami40 000Norway, Sweden, Finland
Other languages: Veps (Onega lake), Cheremis/Mari and Mordvin, Votiak/Udmurt et Zyrian/Komi (North-East of Russia), Ludian, Permyak

Ugric branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Hungarian15.5 millionHungary
Other languages: Ostiak et Vogul (Ob valley, Siberia (North-West))

Samoyed group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Selkup Siberia (North-West)
Nenets Siberia (North-West)

 

  Caucasian family (10 million speakers)

Caucasian group

North-Western

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Cherkes Russia
Abkhaz Georgia

North-Eastern

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Avar Russia
Chechen-Ingush2 millionChechen Ingushetia
Other languages: Lezgi

Kartvelian group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Georgian5.5 millionGeorgia

 

  Altaic family (75 million speakers)

Turkic group (70 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Turkish59 millionTurquie, Balkans
Azeri25 millionAzerbaïdjan, nord-ouest de l'Iran
Kazakh10 millionKazakhstan
Uzbek17 millionOuzbékistan
Turkmenian3 millionTurkmenistan
Kirghiz3 millionKirghizstan
Tatar7 millionTurkey, Balkans, ex-URSS, China
Uyghur7 millionXinjiang Autonomous Region (China)
Yakut360 000Siberia (North-East)
Other languages: Gagauz, Karakalpak, Bachkir, Chuvash (2 million)

Mongolian group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Mongol (Khalkha)6 millionMongolia, China
Kalmyk Kalmoukia (Russia)
Other languages: Oirat, Yugur

Manchou-Tungus group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Manchou China
Evenki China, ex-URSS
Lamout close to Okhotsk sea
Tungus Eastern Siberia

 

  Japanese family

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Japanese126 millionJapan
Okinawa dialect1 millionJapan

 

  Ainu family

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Ainunearly extinctJapan

 

  Korean family

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Korean75 millionKorea

 

  Sino-Tibetan / Sino-Thai family (1.5 billion speakers)

Chinese group (1 billion speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Chinese (Mandarin)835 millionChina (Northern Yantze, South-West)
Cantonese75 millionChina (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Macao)
Wu77.1 millionChina (Shanghai, Suzhou, Hangzhou)
Xiang36 millionChina (Hunan)
Yue46.3 millionChina (Guangxi, Guangdong)
Min (Minnan)77 millionChina (Fujian, Hainan), Taiwan
Kejia (Hakka)25.4 millionChina (South-East, Taiwan)
Gan20.5 millionChina (Jiangxi)

Tibeto-Burman group

Tibetan branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Tibetan6 millionTibet, China, Nepal, Bouthan
Other languages: Itszu

Burman branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Burmese40 millionBurma
Other languages: Kachin, Karen, Chin, Naga, Yin

Tai-Kadai / Daic group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Thai60 millionThailand
Shan Burma
Lao5 millionLaos
Zhuang15 millionChina (Guangxi, Yunnan)
Other languages: Yuan, Dong, Li

Miao-Yao (Hmong-Mien) group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Miao (Hmong Njua)1 millionChina (South), Vietnam, Laos
Yao China (South)
Other languages: Hmong Daw (White Miao)

 

  Austro-Asiatic family (80 million speakers)

Mon-Khmer group (74 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Khmer10 millionCambodia
Vietnamese75 millionVietnam
Môn1 millionBurma, Thailand
Nicobaresefew thousandsNicobar Islands
Other languages: Senoic, Bahnaric, Katuic, Pearic

Munda group (6 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Santali4 millionIndia
Mundari2 millionIndia
Other languages: Korku, Kharia, Gorum

 

  Afro-Asiatic family (200 million speakers)

Chamitic group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Ancient Egyptianextinct language

Semitic group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Arabic (standard, classical)150 millionMaghreb, Near East
Hebrew6 millionIsrael
Amharique20 millionEthiopia
Tigrinya6 millionEthiopia, Erythrea
Maltese300 000Malta
Arabic dialects: Algerian, Eyptian, Irakian, Jordanian, Lebanese, Libyan, Moroccan, Mauritanian, Omanese, Palestinian, Saoudian, Syrian, Chadian, Tunisian, Yemeni
Other languages: Aramaic, Assyrian (Akkadian), Tigré, Argobba

Berber group (11 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Tamazight3 millionMorocco
Rifain2 millionMorocco
Tachelhite / chleuh3 millionMorocco
Kabyle3 millionAlgeria
Chaouia1.4 millionAlgeria (Kabylia)
Mozabit (tumzabt, mzab)70 000Algeria (Mzab valley)
Tamachek300 000Sahara (Touaregs)
Other languages: Jerban, Judeo-Berber

Cushitic group (13 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Somali8.3 millionSomalia
Oromo30 millionsKenya, Southern Ethiopia
Other languages: Sidamo, Afar, Gedeo, Bedja, Bedawi

Omotic group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Wolaytta2 millionEthiopia
Gamo780 000Ethiopia
Melo80 000Ethiopia
Basketto82 000Ethiopia
Seze109 000Ethiopia
Yemsa500 000Ethiopia

Chadic group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Haoussa45 millionNiger, Nigeria
Other languages: Mandara, Ngala, Bana

 

  Nilo-Saharan family (26 million speakers)

Songhai group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Songhai-Zarma1.5 millionMali, Niger
Kanouri1.5 millionNigeria, Chad
Other languages: Forian (1 million)

Chari-Nile group (20 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Dinka1.3 millionSudan
Other languages: Nuer, Chillouk, Diour (Luo), Bari, Toposa, Nuba, Bongo, Burun, Dagik, Daju, Didinga

Maban group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Maba Chad
Runga Chad
Mimi Chad

Fur group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Fur Ethiopia, Sudan
Other languages: Amdang, Bagirmi, Bedjonde, Berakou, Bideyat

Koman group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
gule Ethiopia, Sudan
Other languages: Komo, Kwama, Opuuo, Uduk

 

  Nigero-Kordofanian family

Kordofanian languages

Kadugli group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Kanga Sudan
Other languages: Tulish, Tumma, Krongo, Tumtum, Keiga

Kordofanian group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Warnang Sudan
Other languages: Heiban, Laro, Logol, Otoro, Shwai, Moro, Tegali, Tingal

Niger-Congo languages

Benue-Congo branch

Bantoid sub-group (9 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Tiv Nigeria
Birom Nigeria

Bantu languages (400 languages, 100 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Fang560 000Cameroon, Gabon
Boulou Cameroon
Ewondo Cameroon
Douala400 000Cameroon
Bamileke2 millionCameroon
Luva6.3 millionCongo-Kinshasa
Tshiluba6 millionCongo-Kinshasa
Lingala8 millionCentral African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa
Kikongo6 millionAngola, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa
Kituba5 millionCongo (South)
Luganda4 millionUganda
Makoua Uganda
Kinyarwanda-Kirundi15 millionRwanda, Burundi
Swahili30 millionTanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Congo DR, Rwanda, Burundi
Kikouyou4.6 millionKenya
Sukuma Tanzania
Bemba Zambia
Nyanja (chewa, chinyanja)3.2 millionMalawi, Zambia
Kimbundu3 millionAngola
Umbundu4 millionAngola
Shona10 millionMozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Sotho3.5 millionSouth Africa
Tswana3 millionSouth Africa, Botswana
Zulu5 millionSouth Africa
Ndebele1 millionZimbabwe, South Africa
Xhosa4 millionSouth Africa
Comorian languages900 000Comoros

Eastern Adamawa group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Zande Northern Congo
Ngbandi Central African Republic
Sango350 000Central African Republic
Ngbaka (Bwaka)40 000Congo DR, Central African Republic

Kwa group (32 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Efik Nigeria
Yoruba20 millionNigeria, Benin
Igbo20 millionNigeria
Ew2.7 millionTogo, Ghana
Fanti Ghana
Twi (Akan, Fante and Ashanti)4 millionGhana
Anyi Ivory Coast
Baoule1 millionIvory Coast
Bassa (Basaa)800 000Cameroon
Krou Liberia
Other languages: Bino-Edo, Akan, Gurma, Gwa, Abe, Ari, Ga, Ijo, Igala

Gur group (12 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
More (Mossi)5 millionBurkina-Faso, Togo, Ghana
Dogon500 000Mali
Other languages: Senoufo, Koulango, lobi

West-Atlantic group (17 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Wolof4 millionSenegal, Gambia
Temne Sierra Leone
Peul (or Fula, Fulani, Fulfude)13 millionSenegal, Gambia, Guinea, Nigeria (East), Cameroon
Other languages: Serere, Kissi, Baga, Bulom, Banda, Sere

Mande group (12 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Bambara12 millionMali
Dioula Ivory Coast
Malinke (or Maninka, Mandingo)3 millionGuinea
Sosso (or Soussou)600 000Guinea
Soninke (or Sarakhole)1 millionMauritania, Senegal, Mali
Kpelle Liberia

 

  Khoisan family (100 000 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Hottentot (Nama)25 000Southern Africa
Sandawe23 000North-Eastern Tanzania
Hatsafew thousandsNorth-Eastern Tanzania
other languages: bochiman

 

  Austronesian family (300 million speakers)

Formosan group (450 000 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Amis130 000Taiwan
Atayal63 000Taiwan
Bunun34 000Taiwan
Paiwan81 000Taiwan
Pyuma7 200Taiwan
Rukai8 000Taiwan
Saisiyat3 200Taiwan
Taroko28 000Taiwan
Tsou5 000Taiwan
Yami3 000Taiwan

Western Malayo-Polynesian group / Indonesian (265 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Malay20 millionMalaisia
Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)200 millionIndonesia
Tagalog (Filipino)72 millionPhilippines
Bikol2.5 millionPhilippines
Magindanaw1 millionPhilippines
Pampangan2 millionPhilippines
Pangasinan2 millionPhilippines
Visayan15 millionPhilippines
Ilocano8 millionPhilippines
Javanese80 millionIndonesia
Balinese3.5 millionIndonesia
Sundanese25 millionIndonesia
Banjar3 millionIndonesia
Batak Dairi1.2 millionIndonesia
Lampung1.5 millionIndonesia
Bouguinais4 millionIndonesia
Madurese10 millionIndonesia
Batak Toba2 millionIndonesia
Minangkabaw7 millionIndonesia
Makassar2 millionIndonesia
Ilongo7 millionIndonesia
Sasak2.1 millionIndonesia
Malagasy20 millionMadagascar
Chamorro Guam Island
Cham Bahnar Vietnam
Jarai Vietnam
Rade Vietnam
Roglai Vietnam
Western Cham Cambodia
Cham languages Thailand
Tsat China
Other languages (Indonesia): Cebuano (Philippines), Dayak (Borneo), Palauan (Palau), Yapese

Central Malayo-Polynesian group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Tetum300 000Indonesia (Timor)
Kisar20 000Indonesia (Moluccas)
Kei86 000Indonesia (Moluccas)
Makian35 000Indonesia (Moluccas)
Hitu16 000Indonesia (Moluccas)
Manusela7 000Indonesia (Moluccas)
Other languages (Indonesia): Kemak, Galoli, Damar, Seram, Buru, Selwasan, Aru

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian group

Southern Halmahera branch (150 000 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Ambai10 000 
Eastern Makiam20 000 
Biak40 000 
Other languages: Buli, Maba, Patani, Weda, Giman, Marau, Makiam Dalam

Oceanic branch (3 million speakers)

Melanesian languages (1 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Fidjian285 000Fidji
Drehu15 000New Caledonia
Nengone6 100New Caledonia
Paicî5 500New Caledonia
Ajië5 000New Caledonia
Xârâcùù5 000New Caledonia
Belep1 100New Caledonia (Belep Islands)
Other languages: Ïaaï

Polynesian languages (1 million speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Samoan300 000Samoa
Tahitian220 000French Polynesia
Maori200 000New-Zealand, Cook Islands
Rarotonga37 000Cook Islands
Tuamotu14 400French Polynesia
Niuan11 800Niue Island
Marquisian8 000French Polynesia
Wallisian19 500Wallis-and-Futuna
Futunian6 600Wallis-et-Futuna
Hawaiian2 000Hawaï
Tuvaluan Tuvalu Islands
Tongian108 000Tonga Islands
Rapanui Easter Island
Rotuman, Faga-Uvea, Tekelauan

Micronesian languages (500 000 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Kiribati64 000 
Marshallese29 000 
Nauruan6 000 
Trukese38 000 
Ponape27 700 
Kosraean6 900 
Carolinian2 500 

 

  Indopacific family (Papuan languages)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Enga180 000Papua New Guinea
Kuanua80 000Papua New Guinea
Melpa75 000Papua New Guinea
Kuman70 000Papua New Guinea
Huli65 000Papua New Guinea
Other languages: Wantoat, Telefol, Iatmul, Asmat

 

  Australian languages

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Warlpiri3000Northern Territory
Western Arunta1000Northern Territory
Eastern Arunta1500-2000Northern Territory
Murrinbata1000Northern Territory
Anindilyakwa1000Northern Territory and Gulf of Carpentaria
Alyawarra1500Northern Territory and Queensland
Wik-Mungkan1000Queensland
Kala Lagaw3000-4000Torres Strait islands and Queensland
Pitjantjara2500Southern Australia

 

  Creoles or Pidgin languages

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
West Indian Creole650 000Martinique, Guadeloupe
Haitian Creole7 millionHaiti
Mauritian Creole600 000Mauritius Island
Creole from Reunion600 000La Réunion
Bichlamar (Melanesian Pidgin)190 000Vanuatu
Other languages: Papiamentu Creole (Dutch West Indies), Neomelanesian Creole from New-Guinea

 

  Amerindian family (25 million speakers)

Araucanian group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Arauacan200 000Chili
Other languages: Huilliche, Mapudungun

Quechuan group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Quechua (Runa Simi)9 millionEquador, Peru, Bolivia
Other languages: Chiquian, Corongo, Huaylas, Huallaga, Panao, Huaylla, Jauja, Chachapoyas

Aymaran group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Aymara1.5 millionBolivia

Tupi-Guarani group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Guarani3 millionParaguay
Tupi Brazil
Other languages: Ariqueme, Kawahib, Oyampi

Arawakan group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Arawak Caribean coast
Other languages: Chapacuran, Arauan, Chamicura, Gahiban, Mahipuran, Purus

Chibchan group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Miskito Honduras, Nicaragua
Cuna Panama
Other languages: Isthmien, Abura, Talamanca, Barbacoa, Paezan, Coconucoan, Popayanen

Mayan group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Yucatec (Maya)500 000Mexico
Other languages: Kekchi, Quiche, Mam, Tzotzil, Cakchiquel, Chol, Itza, Jacalteco, Yocatan, Ixil

Oto-Manguean group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Otomi  
Other languages: Mixtec, Zapotec, Chiquihuitlan Mazatec, Mazahua, Choco, Oaxaca, Mangue

Uto-Aztecan group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Nahuatl900 000Central America
Other languages: Hopi, Comanche, Luiseno, Cahuilla, Cupeno, Papago, Ute, Mono, Paiute, Pima

Wakashan group (1500 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Haisla Canada
Other languages: Heiltsuk, Kwakiutl, Makah, Nootka

Siouan group (90 000 speakers)

Missouri River Group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Crow  
Other languages: Hidatsa

Mandan Group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Mandan  

Mississippi Valley Group

Dakotan subgroup

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Sioux (Dakota-Lakota-Nakota)  
Other languages: Assiniboine, Stoney

Chiwere-Winnebago subgroup

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Chiwere (Ioway-Otoe-Missouria)  
Other languages: Ho-chunk (Winnebago)

Dhegiha (Dhegihan) subgroup

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Omaha-Ponca  
Other languages: Kansa (Kaw)-Osage, Quapaw (Arkansas)

Ohio Valley Group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Tutelo  
Other languages: Occaneechi

Muskogean group (10 000 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Choctaw10 000North America (Oklahoma)
Muskogee (Creek)  
Other languages: Alabama, Koasati, Mikasuki, Chickasaw

Iroquoian group (45 000 speakers)

Northern branch

Susquehannock

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Mohawk Québec, New York
Oneida New York, Ontario, Wisconsin
Onondaga New York, Ontario
Seneca New York, Ontario
Cayuga New York, Ontario
Susquehannock Susquehana valley

Wendat

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Wendat Ontario, Oklahoma

Tuscarora

languenombre estimé de locuteurszone géographique principale
Tuscarora Ontario

Southern branch

Cherokee

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Cherokee40 000North Carolina, Oklahoma

Algonquian group (130 000 speakers)

Central branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Sac-Fox-Kickapoo  
Shawnee  
Other languages: Menomini, Peoria-Miami-Illini

Cree

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Cree  
Montagnais  
Naskapi  
Other languages: Atikamekw, Oji-Cree

Ojibwa

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Ojibwa (Chippewa)40 000Canada (Manitoba, northern Ontario)
Other languages: Algonquin, Ottawa, Potawatomi

Eastern branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Abenaki  
Micmac  
Mohegan  
Other languages: Malicite, Delaware

Plains branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Arapaho  
Blackfoot  
Cheyenne  

 

  Na-Dene family

Athapaskan group (200 000 speakers)

Northern Athapaskan

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Ahtna  
Dena'ina (Tanaina)  
Other languages: Deg Hit'an (Ingalik, Deg Xinag), Holikachuk (Innoko), Koyukon, Kolchan (Upper Kuskokwim), Lower Tanana, Tanacross, Upper Tanana, Southern Tutchone, Northern Tutchone, Gwich'in (Kutchin), Hän, Tagish, Tahltan, Kaska, Sekani, Dunneza (Beaver), Slavey (Slave), Mountain, Bearlake, Hare, Dogrib, Dene Suline (Chipewyan), Tsetsaut, Babine (North Carrier), Dakelh (Carrier), Chilcotin (Tsilhqot'in), Nicola (Stuwix), Tsuut'ina (Sarsi), Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie (Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanie)

Pacific Coast Athapaskan

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Hupa (Hoopa-Chilula)  
Other languages: Mattole-Bear River, Eel River, Upper Umpqua, Rogue River (Tututni), Galice-Applegate, Tolowa

Southern Athapaskan (Apachean)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Plains Apache (Kiowa-Apache)  
Navajo  
Other languages: Chiricahua, Mescalero, Western (Coyotero) Apache, Jicarilla, Lipan

 

  Eskimo-Aleut family

Aleut group

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Aleut2 000Aleutian Islands

Eskimo (Inuit) group

Inuit branch (60 000 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Inuktitut Canada
Inuktitut (Kalaallisut) Greenland
Inuktitut (Inupiak)40 000Alaska

Yupik branch

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Yupik17 000Alaska and Siberia (different dialects)

 

  Paleo-Siberian languages (10 languages, 23 000 speakers)

LanguageApprox. number of speakersMain geographic area
Ket990Lenissei
Youkaghir150Arctic Siberia
Other languages: Chukchi, Gilyak, Koryak, Tchouktche, Kamchadale, Yuit

 

 

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